Research in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) and cognitive psychology has shown in the last decades that in order to be successful in their foreign language (FL) learning, students need, through exposure to authentic, comprehensible input, rich and frequent opportunities to interact in the target language in a purposeful way.
“Conversational interaction is an essential, if not sufficient, condition for second language acquisition. [...] what learners need is not necessarily simplification of the linguistic forms but rather an opportunity to interact with other speakers, working together to reach mutual comprehension.
Through these interactions, interlocutors figure out what they need to do to keep the conversation going and make the input comprehensible. [...] And when communication is difficult, inter locutors must ‘negotiate for meaning’, and this negotiation is seen as the opportunity for language development.”
Five key concepts, identified by Lourdes Ortega (2009) as the five environmental ingredients of success, are at the core of the Fluency pedagogical design.